I can’t stop writing about the Oresteia. Here’s a link to a piece I wrote for Northern Ireland’s freshest culture blog, We Happy Few. My angle here is the collision of myth and materialism, with more jokes. Well, I call them jokes.
I can’t stop writing about the Oresteia. Here’s a link to a piece I wrote for Northern Ireland’s freshest culture blog, We Happy Few. My angle here is the collision of myth and materialism, with more jokes. Well, I call them jokes.
The Oresteia, The Globe, 15 October 2015 (matinée)
On the palace wall is a daub of red graffiti in tall letters:
Everyone in the Globe knows at once that these words are from Aeschylus’ Agamemnon, line 1430. They are the concerned words from the Chorus to their queen, Clytemnestra, translated by Louis MacNeice as, ‘you must / Pay for a blow with a blow’. In the excellent middle section of this production, this boxer’s trade-off is compellingly presented.
This Oresteia, directed by Adele Thomas, is largely faithful to the structure of Aeschylus’, and Rory Mullarkey’s translation moves with poetic diction and rhythm in the choral parts. The text works hard to emphasize the pervasive opposition in the trilogy. Early, the chorus describes war wounds with the chiasmus, ‘members truncated and trunks dismembered’; while the opposed elements of their sorrowful refrain, αἴλινον αἴλινον εἰπέ, τὸ δ᾽ εὖ νικάτω (MacNeice again: ‘Cry, cry upon Death; but may the good prevail’) is rendered as a conjunction of ‘hopeless’ and ‘hopeful’. The members of the Chorus move around the stage and yard with disconcerting squalls of sound emanating from their capacious coats. The music is by Mira Calix, combining live clarinet, saxophone, and French horn with pre-recorded electronic elements emitted from speakers worn by the Chorus. (Mira Calix has written about the technology on two promotional blogs on the manufacturer’s website [one] [two].)
For me, there were two points when the music, performances, and staging combined with powerful results. The first was Cassandra’s great scene. This is often an opportunity for a director to change the pace and the emotional focus of the play. It presents a voice from the destroyed city of Troy, breaking out from traumatised silence. It also contains the first moment when Clytemnestra’s absolute command is challenged effectively, and brings the language of prophecy, history, and the divine into the political stage. This is the fifth different interpretation I have covered (the hissing of Tony Harrison’s version, Helen Mirren’s PVC Apollo-tease, Alex Silverman’s operatic score in the 2010 Cambridge Greek Play, and Hara Yannas’s torrent of untranslated Aeschylus in the Almeida this year). In each case, Cassandra’s scene marks a point of contrast, and in this version, we have a terrific Cassandra (Naana Agyei-Ampadu) whose mantic utterances are matched to an atonal score. She sings, closely accompanied by the clarinet, in what struck me as a sort of a free-jazz Schönberg. Albert Ayler interpreting Pierrot Lunaire? Musicologists in the audience are invited to put me right on this. Either way, it is a moment of tremendous, and different, energy.
The second high point was the second play. After a short interval, this was the best Libation Bearers I have seen. I consider this play a problem for directors. The text is very flat in the first half, containing a moral debate between Orestes, Electra, and the Chorus about whether and how to avenge Agamemnon. It is well-acknowledged that the texts we have of classical Greek plays are essentially librettos of performances with integral songs and dances. In the Globe, the trio of wind and brass players descends from their position in the circle, to play upstage: visually foregrounding the musical score. The Chorus (the company from the Agamemnon, now playing the palace’s slaves) are choreographed in a mockery of the chest-thumping, oath-swearing salute of Clytemnestra in the first play. The rough physicality of the Chorus encircles the compassionate unit of Orestes (Joel MacCormack) and Electra (Rosie Hilal); Orestes’ friend Pylades (Sid Sagar) hanging back until his sole, pivotal line. With movement and music, Orestes’ moral dilemma is dramatized with urgent pace, without losing the solemnity of the text. A greatly satisfying achievement.
Following this, the Eumenides is a disappointment: performed as an impatient dash, as if in fear of the audience becoming tired or bored. Athena in particular is directed to speak her lines as if in a hurry. A new prologue is added about our neglect of old temples and old gods; this serves to remind us to see the Furies in the landscape around us, and not to dismiss them as archaic remnants. But we are also encouraged to ponder the implications of the commercial value of the prime urban locations occupied by Churches. A jarring intervention. The Chorus of Furies are by turns frightening and funny. The first Fury appears at the end of Libation Bearers with sharp, angular choreography of jerks to an electronic glitch soundtrack. This contrast to the rest of the staging is not successfully integrated. Throughout the Eumenides, the Furies risked self-parody with their repertoire of gurns and stares. Audience laughter was possibly played up to, but it is not appropriate. Moreover, if making radical changes to the start of this play – losing the priestess’s beautiful and timely account of the importance of the land – why not update the arguments in the court scene? They are notoriously daft to modern ears (and, some argue, to Attic ears as well), namely, Apollo’s appeal to the ‘flower-pot’ theory of conception (that the mother is merely a vessel for the father’s seed), and Athena’s honouring the male in recognition of her birth from Zeus’s head.
Eumenides aside, moments of humour are played well: as in the messenger’s delight at returning home which then shades into horror in the exchange of news between those who went to war and those who stayed home. As for Aegisthus, he was played as a drunken Geordie (by Trevor Fox, who, since he was in Our Friends in the North, I shall assume is legitimately Geordie). This wrong-footing interpretation was ideal: catching this long-scheming, personally timid, parvenu character perfectly – a terrifying clown.
Unlike the psychologised Clytemnestra presented across the Thames (at the Almeida, then transferred to Trafalgar Studios), the Globe’s Clytemnestra (Katy Stephens) is more in keeping with the traditional interpretation of Aeschylus’ play, and is monstrously ironic from the start – the fearsome watchdog of the house. The monstrousness is expressed on stage by a terrible bloodiness: the production uses comically horrific quantities of Kensington Gore. In the pivotal scene in which Agamemnon walks on rich tapestries into his house, rather than unfolding elaborate embroideries (or visual reminders of his sacrificed daughter’s dresses, as is sometimes staged) the victorious king instead strides, trailing buckets-worth of blood over a pure white carpet. At the Globe, blood is active, lively, messy, and contagious.
Two final points on the staging. Doubling is a well-known motif of the trilogy: most notable is Clytemnestra’s appearance at the palace door with the bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra, matched by Orestes’ appearance with the bodies of Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. A less overt continuation of this tableau is Athena’s presence, flanked by two uncannily similar ‘supernumeraries’ (Emily Dunn and Holly Georgia). At one point I wondered how these supernumeraries managed to have such immaculately identical hair – something of a Mary Quant bob. Much later, I recalled the technology of the wig. The production concludes with a sudden satyr scene: an uproarious revel in contrast to the foregoing tragedy. Here Pan runs about the yard, pulling faces and making obscene gestures in his jet-black, shaggy goat shorts. Just one more thing: he is blacked-up. Perhaps audiences in 2015 are ready to accept white actors in black-face as long as they are portraying mythical hybrid creatures, but it’s undoubtedly an uncomfortable moment. It is, happily, accompanied by the propitious parading of a giant, gold and winged phallus.
Oresteia, Almeida, 8 July 2015 (matinée)
In 493 BC the Greek Tragedian Phrynichus produced The Fall of Miletus at the Theatre of Dionysus. It was a response to the capture of the city by the Persians the previous year, and, Herodotus tells us, ‘the audience burst into tears and fined him a thousand drachmas for reminding them of a disaster that was so close to home’ (6.21, tr. Waterfield). I am inclined to level a similar fine against the Almeida’s Oresteia, which brings ancient tragedy home to its contemporary audience with unremitting emotive force. The play starts almost exactly on time, and the strict keeping of time is vital throughout; at many points a second’s ticking is heard in the background. The company slowly wanders on the stage, observing the audience, looking around the room. This goes on for longer than is perhaps comfortable for the audience: the cast take total possession of the room in this way. Then all but two depart, Agamemnon – instantly recognizable, Angus Wright could barely play anyone else: tall, slim, with high, cavernous cheekbones, and slicked-back grey hair – and another, whom the script identifies as Calchas (Rudi Dharmalingam), but his role in this play is more extensive than that of Aeschylus’ Calchas.
The first word in Robert Icke’s version is the same as Aeschylus’: ‘Theous’, but rather than opening the Watchman’s prayer for release from his nocturnal vigil, it is followed by a string of epithets for God, a string which crucially includes ‘The Judge. The Father.’ Icke’s version explicitly ties the authority of family, law, and religion together in a binding, bloody mesh. This is followed by some decidedly colloquial, even clichéd, language, confirming that the source text has fallen away to be carried away by something more immediate. Icke imports more than a little of Euripides into this play, and it is one play: the trilogy reconfigured as a four-act Oresteia. The whole of Act One can be classed as a deep exploration of the moral problem that presented Agamemnon at Aulis. Here the enemy is unnamed and far more immediately threatening than Priam’s Troy. Icke has created a dilemma where we do not have to believe in Zeus Xenios or Artemis in order to sympathise with Agamemnon. To call this play a version of Aeschylus is not strictly accurate: Icke has taken the outline of the trilogy and translated the myth into a twenty-first century social, political and spiritual world.
There is a little too much reliance on shouting to express heightened emotion throughout the play; the first instance is during Agamemnon’s dispute with his brother Menelaus (John Mackay) about the sacrifice (the euphemistic use of this term is powerfully addressed in this version), but there is more with Orestes later. The heightened volume worked best during moments of violent action: the coming of the winds and the assault on Klytemnestra.
Iphigenia is given some witty lines about not wanting to eat deer (a reference to the mythical tradition in which she was miraculously substituted by a deer at the moment of her sacrifice). As in the ancient tragedies, her death is the divine condition of the fair winds to release Agamemnon’s military force. Icke’s script offers two arguments for killing Iphigenia that make rhetorical sense of the senseless proposition: Menelaus asserts that, without the sacrifice, defeat is inevitable, and the future for her is unutterably bleak. When Klytemnestra, Agamemnon’s wife, alludes to the crimes committed upon others — especially women and girls — in war, Agamemnon interprets this as ‘wisdom’: ‘The child is the price of the war, and we don’t see the price of the war, we don’t see it, and this this will insist that I do’. To spare Iphigenia a worse fate, and for the head of state to suffer what he expects his people to suffer is effective rhetoric indeed, but the decision remains abhorrent and beyond rational conclusion. In that sense, all the rhetoric is wasted. Icke’s Klytemnestra recognizes Agamemnon’s ethos (in the Greek sense, his essential nature): ‘You were always going to do it. You liked to push back against it – it’s a good feeling, surrender, actually – but you knew, you knew from the first moment you heard – even before you heard the question – you knew what your answer would be. This was always going to happen.’
The killing follows shortly. The company has three young actors for Iphigenia; at this performance she was played by Eve Benioff Salama with winning sweetness and, in this scene, obedience. It is a modern killing: the action of the liquid and pill meticulously described by Calchas. Iphigenia sits on Agamemnon’s lap, she wears a saffron dress, opens her mouth playfully to accept the pill. I am not unmoved by this, and when she weakly asks to lie down, and for water, the scene becomes very hard to bear. By the time she is laid down and Agamemnon cries that it was the worst mistake, repeating ‘It was wrong’ (implicitly affirming the inadequacy of language in meeting the situation), and then, stage right, a door opens, spilling bright white light and raging wind, the emotional impact on my body is convulsive. Much of the rest of the play continues at this pitch of imminent emotional rupture.
Act Two picks up roughly where Aeschylus begins: anticipating the return of Agamemnon from the war. I’ve not seen a Klytemnestra more sympathetically played than by Lia Williams here. Her love for her children is apparent, but its overshadowing by grief at the murder of Iphigenia is evident without needing any measly explanation. Indeed, she was so sympathetic, I worried that the script would lose the stupendous scene of her exultation in Agamemnon’s gushing blood that crystallizes her tragedy in Aeschylus’ version. But when the scene arrives, Williams plays it utterly convincingly: she shifts into the mode naturally as the script builds to it, where finally she can announce, ‘I am alive – and I’m free’. By contrast, the role of Cassandra is underplayed in this version: her prophecy too supernatural, her references too specific to Greek mythology. It seems a missed opportunity, given this production’s strong attention to the theme of interpretation. When Cassandra (Hara Yannas) finally speaks, it is in Aeschylus’ original text, untranslated: thus the moving sound of otototoi popoi da / opollon opollon, etc., cries out on the stage, with the other actors’ English text competing over the top.
Act Three corresponds to the Choephoroi, the second play in Aeschylus’ trilogy. The sedate pacing and dialogue of Aeschylus’ version is still a difficulty in Icke’s: it was the only moment when I doubted the script decisions, simply because I felt that the discussion of moral quandary had been comprehensively staged in Act One. These concerns were soon allayed, but this is also the point where I should type out a ‘spoiler warning’. This act contains a stunning innovation that even now raises my arm hairs. The character of Electra (Jessica Brown Findlay) is a textual problem in Aeschylus’ trilogy. Where is she in Agamemnon? Nowhere. What is her role in the second part of Choephoroi? Seemingly forgotten (academics are given to dispute whether she appears at the door with Klytemnestra). Not to mention the famous problem of the graveside recognition, where her footprint exactly matches that of her brother. Icke deals with this in a simple and obvious way. Throughout the play, Orestes (Luke Thompson) is on stage in parallel dialogue with the character identified in the script as ‘Doctor’ (Lorna Brown): she seems at first therapist, then barrister or prosecutor. It is unarguably a production which emphasizes the characters’ individual psychology. After the heart-racing scene in which Klytemnestra and Orestes appear reconciled — then blackout — then Electra throttling Klytemnestra — then blackout — then Orestes throttling Klytemnestra, the Doctor confirms, ‘You’ve survived a trauma. Your sister died, Orestes: your sister, Iphigenia. She died. You survived. We have no record of another sister. You had one sister.’ An incidental consequence is that suddenly Cilissa, Orestes’ nurse who addressed Electra as ‘Orestes’ as she prayed by Agamemnon’s grave, no longer seems senile, but a necessary constant in the house. Appropriately, her actor, Annie Firbank (veteran of Carry on Nurse) takes the role of the sole Fury.
In Act Four, the court is played out overtly, though it is now clear that it has been proceeding throughout the play. Surprisingly, Icke does not temper or modernize Athene’s reasoning for her judgement: ‘In the practice of our lives, we favour men in all things […] it is appropriate that on behalf of this house of justice it is emphasised that men are favoured.’ The wording is careful: Athene is responding to practice, to custom. Calchas asks the audience to decide, silently, Orestes’ fate; I found the word that sat most comfortably in my head was ‘guilty’. Although I abhorred the punishment, I could find Orestes nothing but guilty.
There are some early references in the play to the multivalence of words (often involving the young Orestes, played on this occasion by Ilan Galkoff), sometimes the references are simplistic, but they serve to underscore the multiple possible interpretations of simple utterances. That the academic consultant on the production is Simon Goldhill is no surprise, as the final scenes echo his reading of the play: the court scenes explicitly reject the possibility of an unequivocal conclusion. And so the conclusion to the play was not transcendently harmonious, as I would have attempted, but abandoning us with consequences: Orestes alone, not knowing what to do. The Semnai Theai (the Furies in kindly guise who are enshrined at the heart of the city) are dealt with economically: Calchas says, ‘She is essential: the terror she holds keeps us from collapse’, and when Orestes calls her ‘pure – fury’, Klytemnestra (or her advocate) responds, ‘She’s kind’, with a disagreement about the power of the words used. Orestes ends this devastating performance repeating ‘What do I do?’ I head out, drained, and having lost a brolly in the theatre, to meet the impending tube strike.
The Oresteia (Tony Harrison), BFI, 23 June 2012
This was a showing of the television recording of Tony Harrison’s famous Oresteia, directed by Peter Hall for the National Theatre in 1981, with music by Harrison Birtwistle. It was broadcast in its entirety on Channel 4 (UK) one Sunday evening in 1983. Take a moment to imagine that. My comments are interspersed with the recording as available on YouTube.
Agamemnon part 1
Agamemnon part 2
The Chorus’s masks are essentially identical, so at once the sense of collectivity predominates over individual psychology. One exception to the effacement of the individual is apparent to the modern viewer, as Tony Robinson’s Baldrick voice occasionally marks his lines out from the Chorus. Throughout the trilogy, in the close ups, it is clear that the actors’ lip movements behind the masks were rarely synchronised with the soundtrack. The film was assembled from three different performances, and it would seem that they kept a single soundtrack and matched the visuals separately. This was no distraction; I found that the Chorus members’ gesticulations, and the different angles of viewing the masks gave a surprising variety of expression in such static pieces. The camera also very effectively responded to Harrison Birtwistle’s score, often cutting to the rhythm.
Philip Donaghy’s Clytemnestra was certainly the most thrilling part: her scene with Agamemnon is a particularly gripping portrayal of shifting power dynamics. She is, of course, the only character to appear across all three plays, and in the first two is accompanied by a sinister leitmotif when she appears at the palace doors: when I noticed the repetition of this in Choephori, I was pathetically delighted. Although Donaghy’s voice was hardly feminine, he found a way to present Clytemnestra that I found totally convincing; at other times, however, the all-male cast’s playing of female characters could be incongruous. John Normington as Cassandra, though, hissed the traumatised and mantic words otototoi popoi da to great effect.
One thing that struck me particularly, especially after the previous week’s Agamemnon at the BFI (see below), was the Chorus’s uncertainty after Agamemnon’s death: this did not appear funny at all here. Harrison’s rhyming couplets gave the scene a pace which spoke of confusion, disarray, and perhaps impotent paralysis in the face of intimidation. And then Clytemnestra appears at the door once more with the bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra.
At the BFI presentation, there were two short intervals to separate the plays, and I’m not sure what has happened to my memory of the second play: perhaps because the first half of it is so static — a lot of talk between Orestes, Electra and the Chorus — it is easily overpowered by the other two.
So, the Eumenides: the Erinyes themselves surprised me: they were not at all horrifying, but immaculately white-faced, red-haired, black-clad punks. There was something quite attractive about them, with their hairy, blokeish legs. For the only time in the whole trilogy, did the male cast slip into what could be regarded as parodic female voices, when they chanted ‘Night! Night! Mother Night!’
At the temple of Athena (doubling as the Areopagus, site of the concluding court scene), there was both Athena’s statue, and then Athena herself. Her statue was huge and geometric, and Athena’s own costume designed along the same lines. The strange female-male position of Athena was signalled by the combination of her warrior’s garb and the stylised indication of breasts on her breastplate, like a Dalek.
There were a few chuckles in the NFT audience when the Erinyes began to accept Athena’s terms for peaceful incorporation into Athenian life: ‘What kind of shrine did you say I’d possess?’ It underscores the difficulty of presenting the conversion from pure spirits of vengeance to kindly, yet malevolent protectors of the city-state. Harrison and Hall’s conclusion redeemed any doubts. Athena’s processional escort covered the Erinyes’ fish-net outfits with noble red robes, and then turned to the National Theatre’s 1980s audience, telling them, ‘Stand and be silent while the Kind Ones pass’, before they made their way up the aisle. Sitting a little further away in space and time (from the NT in 1981 to the NFT in 2012), this was appropriately moving, especially after more than four hours in dark auditorium.
Antigone by Sophocles in a version by Don Taylor, directed by Polly Findlay. National Theatre, 2 June 2012
The stage resembles a 1980s European Cold War office, with further offices upstage partitioned by glass walls and doors. There is a portrait in the back of Creon’s office, but, despite the generally excellent sightlines in the Olivier Theatre, the identity of the portrait eluded me from my position. I guessed it was Creon himself, thus Christopher Eccleston, but my friend Tom suggested that David Tennant would be a more apt candidate. Eccleston’s fame is a principal selling point of this production, though Eccleston has excluded any mention of Dr Who, and his other big-money sci-fi jobs from his biography in the programme. It seems an unnecessary, even nervous, move, especially as he plays Creon with the same earnestness bordering on petulance that he dependably brings to all his roles. Book Eccleston, and you invariably get Eccleston. If, like me, you have warmed to his style, then this is no problem. Can he bring a vulnerability and righteousness to Creon, tyrant of Thebes who forbids the burial of Polynices, brother of Antigone and Ismene?
A brief prologue recreates the photograph of Obama, Hillary Clinton, et al. monitoring the progress of the location and killing of Osama bin Laden. Striking an image it may be, but it is a little gratuitous perhaps: how seriously are we expected to draw parallels? Is Polynices a bin Laden figure to Creon? Polynices is denied burial for his attack on the city; bin Laden was said to have been given an appropriate burial. Is the parallel of Creon and Obama intended to cast Creon in a positive light? To give us some investment to sympathise with this unsympathetic character?
On stage, the assembled prologue group disperses into choreographed office bustle: the play’s Chorus is composed of functionaries, speaking singly. Eccleston’s Creon is even more the Blairite managerial ruler than that I’d seen in Oedipus at Colonus at Theatro Technis in January. All these contemporary moves may bring the drama closer to home, but it also keeps the tone decidedly flat. Creon’s early encounter with his son Haemon, betrothed to the rebel Antigone is a fine example of this: the stakes could not have felt lower, as if they were discussing staplers. It finally came alive for me with the entrance of Teiresias (Jamie Ballard): lights flared and flickered before his arrival, perhaps indicating Antigone’s death, but certainly heralding the arrival of something beyond the quotidian, even the activity of the numinous. It is a problem many modern productions have: how to present divinity – which is so crucial to understanding of Greek tragedy – to a secular audience. Famously, the conflict in Antigone is between the heroine’s devotion to her brother, and the ruler’s unwavering adherance to the dictates of the state. But the gods are operating in each corner: the unburied Polynices is an abhorrant religious pollution, yet as his treacherous body would pollute the ground too. Without an understanding of the religious importance of the polis, the city state, Creon is no more than a tyrant. On her highly entertaining and politically engaged blog, Edith Hall has reviewed this production and judges that Creon is not portrayed tyrannically enough! I am uneasy about the idea that explicitly linking tyranny in Thebes with – in Hall’s example – present tyranny and massacre in Syria would help the audience challenge any assumptions; rather than simply reinforcing comfortable liberal view that massacres are bad. That said, I would join her call for a more coherent understanding of the political urgency that lies in these ancient texts. Before I read Hall’s blog, I had suggested that, for the audience to understand Creon, the state that he defends should be presented less as an Obamo-Blairite governmental consultancy, and more akin to a state structure that is worth defending. The welfare state? The NHS? Creon as overworked casualty doctor? Well, that’s an idea that needs a lot of work, but it would open a space for a political mechanism worth defending, and could fruitfully complicate the argument of the play.
Politically disengaged it may be, but we do witness some effective checking-off against Aristotle’s expectations for tragedy, with harmartia, anagnoresis, and peripeteia in evidence in the character of Creon. With Antigone, Haemon, and Eurydice dead at the end of the play, Creon is utterly destroyed – a portrait of desolation. At the close, Eccleston wiped his bloody hand on the wall of the rotating set: a petulant move that seemed somehow jarring with Creon’s present state, but completely in Eccleston’s character.
Oedipus at Colonus, Theatro Technis, 19 January 2012
A multi-lingual production (English, Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) of Sophocles’ play in a productive small theatre in Camden. The last Greek play I saw was a No-Theatre-inspired, Greek-language production of Aeschylus’ Choephoroi in Oxford. The Mediterranean passion at Theatro Technis is a marked contrast to the stylized restraint of the Oxford performance.
Sophocles’ text gives us Oedipus at the end of his life, blind and guided by his daughter Antigone to the grove to the Eumenides at Colonus, a little outside the centre of Athens. It presents the conflict between the polluted figure of Oedipus, the sacred status of the grove, and the political demands of Athens and Oedipus’ native Thebes. The agon was suitably mirrored in the three languages. George Eugeniou’s Oedipus spoke entirely in Modern Greek, while pre-recorded (and sur-titled) Classical Greek provided an account of the mythical situation. The other characters spoke the rationalist language of English. Michael McEvoy’s Creon was the epitome of political management-speak. Theseus (Lucien Morgan), by contrast, offered a compassionate, if somewhat camp, welcome to Athens. The Eumenides are paradoxically fearsome and benevolent spirits, and they were constant silent and graceful presences upstage in this production. One image remains imprinted on my memory, which occurs once Oedipus and Antigone (Tania Batzoglou) are joined by Antigone’s sister Ismene (Nicoletta Procopiou), who arrives with inauspicious news from Thebes. Gathered around the central figure of Oedipus, the daughters completed a powerful trinity: clinging desperately together in a deeply compelling pyramid. At once presenting an image of strength and lamentation, the unity of the three figures evoked something of the power of a depiction of the lamentation over the dead Christ. But by focusing on the figure of Oedipus, the mythical symbol par excellence of a post-Freudian age, Eugeniou’s production creates an affective image that activates the mythico-religious in the present.